I grew up with a clothes line. I took it for granted that all sheets, towels, and clothing were stiff once they were dry, and smelled of fresh air. I also expected that most laundry had fly-specks. Our clothesline was so low that the bed sheets would almost brush the tops of the grass. Now I realize that Mom had Dad build the clothesline that way so my sisters and I could reach the lines at a younger age, and help out with that chore.
One day, after Mom had hung a huge load of laundry on the twin lines, she returned to the house and looked out the window just in time to see our bird dog, Queenie, pull the very last item off of the line with gleeful abandon. This was one of the downsides to your standard washing line. After the outdoors clothesline we went with an indoor clothesmaid.
A few years later, Mom was in a foul mood because it was her anniversary and she hadn’t gotten a gift from Dad. When, lo-and-behold, there was a knock at the door and the postman (there was no other delivery company in those days) delivered a brand new electric clothes dryer! Mom burst into tears. Of happiness, by the way.
That is our family history of the clothes dryer. As an adult, I’ve never had to use a clothesline, thank goodness. But, the first electric clothes dryer first appeared in 1915 – long before we got our labor saving device.
In fact, the early 1800s saw the invention of a ventilated tub that would be rotated over a fire, spit-style, to dry clothes. For generations, the “automatic” clothes dryer was used only in commercial situations, for textile manufacturers and hostelry.
However, two things conspired to put electric and gas clothes dryers in private homes. These were the end of World War II, and the rising significance of women in society. The end of the war brought about not only a needed outlet for technology, but it also brought about a post-war boom. More people – at least, in the winning countries – were making more money than they ever had. The middle class expanded as more people moved up in economic ranking. The expanded middle class meant that more people were in a position to afford heretofore unaffordable luxuries.
In addition, women had kept the country going while the men were at war, and they were not to be denied when the war was over. While women’s work is never done, it can sure be aided by technology.
As far as I’m concerned, though, I’m just glad I don’t have to sleep on fly-speckled sheets, anymore.
From the beginnings of recorded history, plants have been used for decoration. Excavated ruins of Pompeii have elaborate mosaics portraying colorful flowers and huge olive and shade trees. Exhumed mummies from pharaoh’s tombs have plants, herbs, and seeds incorporated into the shrouding that wrap the bodies, and the tombs themselves often have bulbs and seedlings of the royal’s favorite plants included, so they can journey to the afterlife together. Thus begins the convoluted history of plants as decoration.
Plants as Decoration: Bring the Outside In
Some of the purposes of decorating with plants stemmed from the desire to bring natural beauty indoors. The legend of the Christmas tree is a perfect example of this. After seeing the night stars twinkling in the branches of a pine tree in the forest, a man cut a tree down and brought it indoors for his ailing wife. He tied candles to the branches to simulate the twinkling of stars, and the Christmas tree was born.
Even the ancient Greeks believed in the benefits of indoor plants. They believed, correctly, that plants purified the air. Therefore, when anyone was sick, they would bring plants in to absorb the illnesses present. Today, a scattering of plants in the home helps to reduce the risks from formaldehyde, radon gas, and many other chemicals used in construction materials. In fact, businesses often keep living plants in their offices and waiting rooms for that very reason – just a few judiciously placed plants can completely cycle all the air in a building every 24 hour period. Keep in mind, too, that plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the air.
Outdoor Beauty Comes Indoors
The custom of cut flowers was first recorded in ancient Rome, when Anthony gifted Cleopatra with cuttings from fragrant gardenia bushes. This desire for fragrance, color, and texture has been recorded throughout history, and plants serve the role quite well. Cut flowers continue to be one of the most frequently given gifts across the world, and are appropriate for any occasion from birth to death, from wedding to anniversary to birthday.
Even the Roman Coliseum had potted plants in the atria. Palm trees lined the Roman baths, and every villa of note had its own atrium with both potted plants and gardens. This ultimate version of indoor gardening was a symbol of wealth and health, and in the minds of the citizens, elevated nature to its deserved ranking in human priorities. To this day, plant pots take a significant place in our homes.
Interior decorators today often say that there should be an element of nature in each focal point in a room. Potted plants play perfectly into that scheme, providing height in corners or as frames for elegant furnishing, or as texture in a carefully planned still-life. The colors available in foliage, as well as size and textures, make them some of the least expensive accessories for your home.
If you decorate your home and office with plants, you are right in step.
You’ve probably heard the old saying, “only the strong will survive”. Survival of the fittest is steeped in Darwinian tradition, leading humans to think that the gene pool favors those able to either fight or flee. Historically, this may have been true – one would have to be in pretty good shape to survive in the wild, surrounded by saber-toothed tigers. You would also have to be in pretty good shape to be a hunter-gatherer. Perhaps that is why, in the early days of recorded civilization, most humans had a life expectancy of around 30 years.
Nomadic peoples will travel as much as 20 miles in one day to not only provide for their clans, but to visit other tribes. Celebrations such as games and dances last for hours. Historically, primitive peoples lived this way, and some tribes do to this day in less modernized parts of the world.
Around 5000 B.C., the Persian Empire claimed ownership of all male children as soon as they turned 6, and, as a matter of training, required extensive physical commitment in the form of riding, marching, and even javelin throwing. As the affluence of the Persian Empire advanced, the level of physical activity declined, as did, ultimately, the empire.
As civilization has advanced, so has motivation. Humans learned to farm and ranch, raising their food so that they would not have to pursue it. Granted, there were the workers who still toiled daily tending crops and flocks, but the emergence of land ownership lead to actual “down time” for human beings. In different parts of the world, this lead to more free time, which meant more thinking. Clever philosophers observed that some diseases became prevalent with the decrease in activity. Diseases with internal organs, probably diabetes and heart disease, became more prevalent. This, probably around 2000 B.C. gave birth to the first recorded exercise regimen. In China, Confucius recommended physical exercise and in India, the beliefs springing from Hinduism and Buddhism pushed people toward a level of physical exertion for the sake of exertion.
Yoga and Kung Fu were developed during these times, and were the first forms of exercise recorded that did not involve putting food on the table. It is estimated that 24 million people today participate in these two forms of exercise, alone.
Through the centuries, civilizations have risen and fallen. It is interesting to note that the more “civilized” a nation becomes, the less fit the citizens are. And equally interesting is the fact that the conquerors are typically less civilized, and more physically fit.
People today work to keep themselves in shape, requiring motivation that is not based on survival. The most common way to do this is through accountability. With a workout partner or personal trainer, people are more likely to stay with a regimen.
With the impact of computer and communication technology in today’s world, online trainers and training websites like https://youronlinept.co.uk/ have begun to fill the gap, providing accountability and coaching from the ether, much like the philosophies of ancient China and India. Online personal training and diet plans are the next step towards keeping fit, whether your short on time, or willpower, online personal training is a great way to organise and stay in shape.
Surfing is one of those things that you just know would have been around for thousands of years. I could imagine even the cavemen of yesteryear interested in whether they could ride with the current of the waves. It is assumed that the origin of surfing began with bodysurfing. This is the practice of riding a wave without any bouyant board or other assistance. It allows you to ride with the wave down to the shoreline. Surfboards and Bodyboards are actually a fairly recent development in the lifespan of surfing. Surfing is said to have begun in pre-contact Hawaii, it is also said that Peru had its fair share of wave riders.
Surfing In Writing
Surfing was first written about by a chap called Joseph Banks, who had travelled to hawaii on the HMS Endeavour with Captain James Cook. It is said that surfing had been part of Polynesian Culture, long before the Europeans were ever in contact with them. The leader, Chief Ali’i was know the be the best wave rider in town, he also had the best surfboard made from the best timber. It seemed that the working class and the ruling class were seperated not only by their wealth, but by their surfing skills. The working class were not allowed to ride on the same beaches as their richer counterparts, although they would gain notoriety from their surfing ability.
Classic European Interference
Of course, Hawaii could not be left alone to carry on their sinful ways. Missionaries had to be sent from Scotland and Germany in 1821. These lovely missionaries discouraged surfing aswell as many other Polynesian traditions. By the time we hit the 20th century, surfing as well as most of the other Polynesian traditions had all but vanished.
Revival Of The Sport
Hawaiians began to revive surfing well into the 20th century, and managed to re-establish the sport. The revival is said to be linked to boosting tourism and travel. Jack London wrote about the sport after his visit to the islands, and Duke Kahanamoku “Ambassador of Aloha” helped expose surfing to the rest of the world. The 1960s is when surfing really hit the bigtime, with the release of the film “Gidget” Surfing really went mainstream, moving surfing from an underground culture into a national fad. Surfing has been popular eversince, and there are even more crazy ways to ride the waves. If you’re interested in taking up surfing, why not take a look at the adventure activity centres in Croyde, they’ll offer you the opportunity to do what you need.
From the ancient Egyptian pyramids to the Millau Viaduct, the history of civil engineering is a fascinating read. Here are some of the highlights of this ever-evolving science.
What Is Civil Engineering?
Civil engineering is “the branch of engineering concerned with the design and construction of such public works as dams or bridges”1. Most people remain blissfully unaware of the extent to which civil engineering affects their daily lives. However, the slope to the roads you drive, the cross-bracing in buildings in which you work, and the scenic pull-overs you enjoy in national parks are all made safe by civil engineers. Water and energy systems are designed by civil engineers, as are other public works such as railways, airports, and ports.
The great pyramids of Giza are the iconic versions of a perfected technology. However, there were many failed attempts before the long standing skyline was created in this desert.Several scholars translators and translation companies state that the hieroglyphs The pyramids are also missing their pearly white look as well, it is said that they originally had a shiny limestone coat. The exact angle of slope, the footprint area, and construction methods were developed over several lifetimes. Pyramids exist all over the world, in most cultures. The familiar smooth-sided versions of Giza are in contrast to the step-sided pyramids of other cultures.
The Roman aqueducts are legendary for their civil engineering, for many reasons. First of all, the Roman arch was perfected with these structures. The placement of a keystone in each arch secures the structure, and is still in use today. However, the slope of the aqueduct is crucial to success, and provided the technology for all water transmission in the future. The slope necessary for optimal water flow is physics at its most basic, yet requires mastery of surveying. The steady, gradual slope over many miles is acquired only through masterful civil engineering, surveying, and construction. The development of electronic pumping stations aids modern civil engineers, but the process is still the same.
Modern Civil Engineering Wonders
The viaduct in Millau, France, is the tallest bridge in the world. You’ll often find yourself travelling above the clouds on this breathtaking bridge. Taller than the tallest building in France, this suspension bridge breaks several world records.
The Tide Barrier Project in Venice, Italy, is another wonder of the modern world. While Venice is the city of water, the tides have wreaked havoc with this incredible engineering success. Added to this is the fact that the city is sinking. The tide wall is comprised of 80 walls built on hinges. Each wall is about 6500 square feet, and designed to be raised to prevent flooding.
The world’s tallest elevator is in Zhangjiajie, China. This glass, exterior elevator is over 1000 feet tall, and located on a cliff over a valley.
The longest underwater pipeline runs from Norway to England. This gas pipeline, when completed, will supply England with 20% of its needs for natural gas. The engineers have developed methods for laying 8 miles of pipeline every day, despite temperatures far below freezing and violent storms.
Whether you drive on roads that successfully shed flood waters, or enjoy a cool drink of water from the kitchen faucet, you are benefitting from the long traditions of successful civil engineering.
Boredom, in some people’s opinion, is the root of all evil. “Idle minds are the devil’s workshop”, and this has never been more true than today. With all of the electronic aids to getting our work done, we often find ourselves with extra time on our hands. The need to fill that extra time with something leads us to settle for anything that will keep us busy. What can you do to battle boredom? Take up a hobby!
When I was growing up, hobbies were for rich people. That’s because, in our perception (as non-rich people), only people who didn’t work all the time needed a hobby. Little did I know that those “rich people” probably put in as many if not more hours than we did. They just had the money for a hobby.
Times have changed. Hobbies are not expensive any more, unless you want them to be. Here are some great hobbies that you can participate in, and determine how much money you are willing to spend as you go.
In the United States, scrapbooking has become a booming business. Women have always sought ways in which to render useful items for the family that are done in an artistic manner. Crochet, quilting, and tatting have traditionally been the “useful” hobbies for women. But, with digital photography, we now have ready access to photos. We can pick and choose which photos we want to archive, and even edit them in the comfort of our own home. As photography and the printing of photos have become more common and less expensive, we have the ability to scrapbook more and more of our life experiences. There are shops that have all of the equipment you need to dress up your albums.
Exercise And Excitement
Exercise is also a great way to stop yourself from getting bored. Exercise has a lot more benefits to it than most people know. It can help prevent depression, increase lifespan and much more. Exercise doesn’t have to be boring either. Instead of taking a bike ride or going for a run, why not take yourself to an activity centre for some entertaining action? You could end up zipwiring, coasteering, rock climbing and much more. You’ll have your own personal adventure and I guarantee you will enjoy it, so why not make it a hobby?
Drawing And Painting
Drawing and painting were also once reserved as private lessons for the entitled. However, these crafts have been taught in public schools now for decades. In addition, you can find community classes, private classes, and even commercial enterprises that teach you how to draw and paint. Thousands of people are learning the pleasure of developing their artistic abilities and manipulating mediums to create pieces for their homes and offices. Create an art gallery in your hallway with your paintings. Hang them from floor to ceiling, and you’ll find a new appreciation and pride in your blossoming talent.
Learn An Instrument Or A Language
It has been proven that there are only 2 ways to actually increase your IQ. That is through learning an instrument or learning a foreign language.
Some of my best music students are adults who have never played an instrument. These adults have always wished they could sing, or play the flute, and now they are learning how! The great thing about adult students is that they have no delusions about being famous or influential. They just want to complete themselves, and learning an instrument is the fulfillment of a dream. As long as they enjoy the process, the hobby is serving it’s purpose.
Ah Camping, One of my passions. I love getting back to nature and leaving all my devices switched off. There’s nothing quite like being out in the wilderness with your tent, and a tin or two of beans. These day’s you’ll be hard pressed to find anyone who actually camps properly. You’ll see mothers and fathers and their kids with Ipads, Iphones, Nintendos and laptops, and it just makes you wonder, why even go camping if you’re just going to do all the things you do at home, but in a tent. It just seems a bit silly to me. Camping is all about the experiences you can have without those things. So why not take a real camping trip, and leave all that luxury camping UK to the others?
Talking about luxury camping, if you were going camping back in the 1950’s this is about as much luxury as you could get apart from buying a full blown campervan These two seem to be having a nice time with some high quality fold out chairs, and they are very smartly dressed for two people who have just erected a tent. The Volkswagen Type 2 (also known as the Bus (US) or Camper (UK)) Was first released to market back in 1950, so this could have been the ideal era to go camping with a van.
Of course camper vans had been around for a while, but the VW camper really was the start of something special. Just take a look at how ugly this bedford CA camper is.
Tent’s were also another story, they did not have the lightweight materials that we have now. Our modern tents have all kinds of fancy components.
We have a few different varieties too. For instance, we have single skin/Single Wall which has only one waterproof layer, the rest is comprised of the roof and the walls. These are prone to condensation, so some tents use a combination of breathable fabrics and waterproof ones.
Older tents were obviously a different story. The most common of the tents were pup tents. These tents were a small version of a ridge tent and they were made for around 2 to 3 people. These tents often had two poles at each end, ranged in an A shape, this allowed easier access inside the tent. Some of the models of this tent had horizontal poples joining the top ends to support the centre of the tent.
The 1950s are often called the “Boom Days” in the UK and the U.S. Even considering the tragedy and loss many people endured during WWII, the ensuing economic and population growth propelled both continents to greater heights than ever. The décor and architecture, the decorating, and even the appliances of the 1950s reflected the sense of hope and confidence pervasive in society. The Middle Class grew by leaps and bounds, and an improved standard of living gave an entire generation of people a sense of accomplishment. Here are some of the sights you would have seen inside a 1950s home.
The décor of the 1950s home was far different from the eras preceding it. The jet airplane had made its first appearance during the war, and the eyes of developed countries turned away from their neighbors. For the first time, an entire civilization looked to the stars for inspiration. The enemy had been trounced, and the stars were next.
This proved itself out in 1950s décor. Asymmetrical style was pervasive, giving an alien look to normal wall hangings and furnishings. The wall clock replaced the mantle clock in many homes, and the starburst shape kept the imagination challenged with its rays pointing in all directions. Some families were lucky enough to have a starburst clock with the clock itself off-center in the display, resembling more of a meteor than a sun.
Colors used in the 1950s homes were varied, but brought in colors previously avoided in home décor. Turquoise, chartreuse, and lilac were used liberally, adding excitement to the atmosphere of the home.
Patterns were not longer muted, tone-on-tone damask or tulle patterns, but reflected scientific themes, such as galaxies and planets. The boomerang pattern made its appearance during this decade, and was used in wallpaper, curtains, and even upholstery fabric. For the home owners who were not as star-struck, fruit and flower patterns ruled the day, and were used broadly.
There was plenty of upholstered furniture still in use during the 1950s, but many of them had streamlined design in reference to the space age. Banana shaped loungers were common – the first lounge furniture foray into the realm of pit groups. While the “recliner” was not around at this time, loungers would reflect unusual profiles that included pivoting foot-stools.
The war efforts in the West provided plenty of manufacturing of materials used in the war. Chrome, vinyl, plastics, and even laminates had been developed for wartime use, and once the war was over, these materials migrated into the homes of civilians. Most people who grew up in the 1950s remember the vinyl covered chairs on chrome frames. Formica table tops had the boomerang pattern for decoration, but the chrome frame and legs were equally durable. You can still find these items in diners, to this day, either new or reproduced.
There was much more in the 1950s home that had been absent in previous decades. Blenders, coffeemakers, Formica countertops, and washers and dryers became standard equipment in homes of that era.
The space age themes and new materials of the 1950s inspired an entire generation of people, and continue to enrich the lives of nostalgia buffs today.
As you plan your next holiday, think outside the box a little bit. Your holiday can be memorable in many ways, but a change of venue may be just what makes it a once-in-a-lifetime event. Here are 5 unusual and interesting holiday ideas.
Be sure to take your camera on this holiday, because you’re going to see the Northern Lights like you’ve never seen them before. This atmospheric phenomenon is viewed easily from this continent. This tour also includes viewing of killer whales and boat trips. You can book the trip to include your hotel stay and meals – an all-in-one package.
Maybe you don’t want to stray too far from home. Devon, England is a lovely place to visit, especially if you stay on a houseboat! These houseboat stays include full kitchen and bathroom facilities, and can be booked for any number of guests. You can enjoy the feel of water lapping against the hull, and fish for rainbow trout from your front porch. Birdwatchers also find a haven here, and windsurfing and sailing is available right in the area. If you don’t fancy heading into the sea, you can always try out some of the interesting health spas and health farms available on the coast.
The south of India is home to the state of Kerala. You can purchase a holiday here, and find out how families in the area actually live. Your stay will be booked with different families, with two days on a houseboat. This is an ideal way to take a winter holiday, as European winter is the pleasant time of year in southern India.
If you’ve ever wanted to visit the Canary Islands, consider Lanzarote for your trip. You can not only enjoy the beautiful islands, you can experience glamping at its best. Stay in a luxury yurt that has been professionally designed for your comfort, with luxury bath accommodations and easy access to the beach. You’ll have an expansive view of the Temisa mountains, and unbelievable views of the ocean as you dine in the bamboo gazebo. There is also a private, solar heated pool, a play park, a trampoline, and swings for the kids. You even get the use of an eco car for the duration of your stay.
If you are a little more adventurous, and in pretty good shape, consider a biking and barge holiday. This trip will take you from Amsterdam to Bruges, and all of your insurance is included in the cost. With this unique holiday, you will tour some of the most beautiful sights in Holland and Belgium. Your tour will begin with the Gouda cheese factory in Amsterdam, from whence you will cycle to tour the famous windmills of the Dutch countryside. Other destinations on your tour will include Dordrecht, the nature reserves of Biesbosch, and Willemstad. You’ll take a barge to on the Zeeland waterways, and move on to Antwerp and Ghent, where you’ll round out your tour with a visit to the famous chocolatiers of Bruges.
There you have 5 unusual destinations for your holiday this year. Enjoy your memorable visits to these unique places.
Clothing has changed over the years, but lets look in the past and see what it was like. many decades have past since the world war 2 and how exactly have the clothes changed since then? After the war, there weren’t many drastic changes. Things did not instantly go back to normal once the war was finished. Debt and inflation were still big problems once the war had ended, and rationing was still in full swing. It took until 1947 for clothing restrictions to end and 1948 for materials and other rationed items to be free’d up, this is when the fashion revolution began.
After The War
In 1948, Nylon stockings became very popular, they just couldn’t stock enough of them for the influx of ladies queueing up to buy them. Women’s fashion had it’s change on February 12th 1947 when Christian Dior launched the first iteration of House Of Dior. This was said to be the “New Look” with colourful below mid calf length full skirts without the padded shoulders (popular at the time). The influential clothing changed the fashion at the time, fashion magazines had been following padded shoulders up until 1950. The end of the war made way for several innovations in fashion, new materials were created such as spandex,
Mens fashion didn’t change drastically after the war, in America, men wore double-breasted suits that had broad shoulders , as rationing stepped down a bit, more material could be used and trousers eventually became styles with turn ups. The UK was a different story, rationing lasted a couple of years longer, and men had to make do with the suits provided by the government. Everyman was given a suit after the war, usually in grey chalkstripe or a blue. Taylors all around were taking the opportunity to change the style of suits, Savile Row began working on “The New Edwardian” look which featured a slightly flared jacket and a narrow cut. The Teddy Boys a British subculture began using this the new Edwardian look and added bright socks and a bootlace necktie which became popular across the whole of the UK.
1950’s to 1960’s
Already things within the clothing industry had begun to make a change, Dior had revolutionised the fashion industry and had been embraced by the public. The masciline time of the 40s had been transformed, hems fell and the hourglass silhouette had begun. It was at this time that the US War Production Board had sponsored a survey that helped create the standard sizing for the clothing industry.
The Latter of the 1950s introduced a couple of new looks, Balenciaga had a big influence as well as Dior, He created standaway backs with fitted fronts, he introduced the sack dress and in 1958 Yves Saint Laurent successfully presented the Trapeze Dress for Dior. These items would all evolve into 1960s icons.
1970’s until now
The 1970’s were probably the most interesting in terms of fashion, Bell-bottoms and the “hippie” look from the end of the 1960’s, some of the trends from the 1970’s still remain today. The 1970’s had many other extreme traits, including platform shoes with soles 2 to 4 inches thick! Flared trousers and jeans were also a mainstay for both men and women.
1970’s fashion was soon to be replaced by punk fashion, Straight cigarette-legged jeans, mules and ankle strapped shoes, which also featured back in the 1940s. Blue jeans and white sneakers made its way from the 80’s to the 90’s and colourful T-shirts and shorts tended to be the fashion. The 90’s saw some of the biggest brand names today rising to stardom, with Nike, addidas and various other sporting brands making their way into everyday fashion. 90’s fashion and now are not too dissimilar, infact, we’re even seeing a comeback recently with denim miniskirts and fuzzy cardigans. They say that fashion comes around, and history shows that this is very much true.